First, Foucault says it is "centered on the body as a machine: its disciplining, the optimization of its capabilities, the extortion of its forces, the parallel increase of its usefulness and its docility, its integration into systems of efficient and economic controls. In this volume, Foucault discusses "the manner in which sexual activity was problematized by philosophers and doctors in classical Greek culture of the fourth century B. Other authors whose work is discussed include Galen , Plutarch , and Pseudo-Lucian. Foucault describes the Oneirocritica as a "point of reference" for his work, one that exemplifies a common way of thinking.
Three volumes of The History of Sexuality were published before Foucault's death in The work was a further development of the account of the interaction of knowledge and power Foucault provided in Discipline and Punish According to Arnold Davidson , the back cover of the first volume announced that there would be five forthcoming volumes: Volume 2, The Flesh and the Body , would "concern the prehistory of our modern experience of sexuality, concentrating on the problematization of sex in early Christianity "; Volume 3, The Children's Crusade , would discuss "the sexuality of children, especially the problem of childhood masturbation "; Volume 4, Woman, Mother, Hysteric , would discuss "the specific ways in which sexuality had been invested in the female body"; Volume 5, Perverts , was "planned to investigate exactly what the title named"; and Volume 6, Population and Races , was to examine "the way in which treatises, both theoretical and practical, on the topics of population and race were linked to the history" of " biopolitics.
The latter volume deals considerably with the ancient technological development of the hypomnema which was used to establish a permanent relationship to oneself. Both were published in , the year of Foucault's death, the second volume being translated in , and the third in The fourth volume, Confessions of the Flesh was published posthumously in despite Foucault explicitly disallowing posthumous publication of his works Pas de publication posthume.
Foucault's family decided that as the material was already partially accessible, it should be published for everyone to read. In his lecture series from to Foucault extended his analysis of government to its " These themes of early Christian literature seemed to dominate Foucault's work, alongside his study of Greek and Roman literature, until the end of his life. The planned fourth volume of The History of Sexuality was accordingly entitled Confessions of the Flesh Les aveux de la chair , addressing Christianity.
However, Foucault's death left the work incomplete, and the publication was delayed due to the restrictions of Foucault's estate. It was edited and finally published in February The sociologist Stephen O. Murray wrote in the Archives of Sexual Behavior that a passage of The History of Sexuality in which Foucault discussed how European medical discourse of the late 19th century had classified homosexuals had "clouded the minds" of many social historical theorists and researchers, who had produced a "voluminous discourse" that ignored how homosexuals had been classified before the late 19th century or non-European cultures.
He credited Foucault with inspiring "genealogical" studies "informed by the heuristic idea that not only are patterns of sexual desire and behavior socially engineered He credited Simone de Beauvoir with anticipating Foucault's view that patterns of sexual desire and behavior are socially determined. The historian Jane Caplan called The History of Sexuality "certainly the most ambitious and interesting recent attempt to analyse the relations between the production of concepts and the history of society in the field of sexuality", but criticized Foucault for using an "undifferentiated concept" of speech and an imprecise notion of "power".
Merquior considered the second two volumes of The History of Sexuality to be of higher scholarly quality than the first, and found Foucault to be "original and insightful" in his discussion of the Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius and other Stoics in The Care of the Self. However, he found the details of Foucault's views open to question, and suggested that Foucault's discussion of Greek pederasty is less illuminating than that of Kenneth Dover , despite Foucault's references to Dover's Greek Homosexuality The philosopher Roger Scruton rejected Foucault's claim that sexual morality is culturally relative in Sexual Desire He also criticized Foucault for assuming that there could be societies in which a "problematisation" of the sexual did not occur.
Scruton concluded that, "No history of thought could show the 'problematisation' of sexual experience to be peculiar to certain specific social formations: it is characteristic of personal experience generally, and therefore of every genuine social order. The philosopher Judith Butler argued in Gender Trouble that the theory of power Foucault expounds in the first volume of The History of Sexuality is to some extent contradicted by Foucault's subsequent discussion of the journals of Herculine Barbin, a 19th-century French hermaphrodite: whereas in the former work Foucault asserts that sexuality is coextensive with power, in Herculine Barbin he "fails to recognize the concrete relations of power that both construct and condemn Herculine's sexuality", instead romanticizing Barbin's world of pleasure as the "happy limbo of a non-identity", and expressing views akin to those of Marcuse.
Butler further argued that this conflict is evident within The History of Sexuality , noting that Foucault refers there to "bucolic" and "innocent" sexual pleasures that exist prior to the imposition of "regulative strategies". The classicist David M. Halperin claimed in One Hundred Years of Homosexuality that the appearance of the English translation of the first volume of Foucault's work in , together with the publication of Dover's Greek Homosexuality the same year, marked the beginning of a new era in the study of the history of sexuality.
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Paglia wrote that much of The History of Sexuality is fantasy unsupported by the historical record, and that it "is acknowledged even by Foucault's admirers to be his weakest work". The classicist Bruce Thornton wrote that The Use of Pleasure was, "usually quite readable, surveying the ancient evidence to make some good observations about the various techniques developed to control passion", but faulted Foucault for limiting his scope to "fourth-century medical and philosophical works". The psychoanalyst Joel Whitebook argued that while Foucault proposes that "bodies and pleasures" should be the rallying point against "the deployment of sexuality", "bodies and pleasures", like other Foucauldian terms, is a notion with "little content.
Scruton wrote in that, contrary to Foucault's claims, the ancient texts Foucault examines in The Use of Pleasure are not primarily about sexual pleasure. Nevertheless, he found the second two volumes of The History of Sexuality more scholarly than Foucault's previous work. Scruton concluded, of the work in general, that it creates an impression of a "normalized" Foucault: "His command of the French language, his fascination with ancient texts and the by-ways of history, his flamboyant imagination and beautiful style - all have been put, at last, to a proper use, in order to describe the human condition respectfully, and to cease to look for the secret 'structures' beneath its smile.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the history article, see History of human sexuality. The Guardian. Retrieved 5 February The New York Times. Altman, Dennis The Homosexualization of America. Boston: Beacon Press. Bernasconi, Robert Honderich, Ted ed. The Oxford Companion to Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Burkert, Walter Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. Butler, Judith Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity.
New York: Routledge. Byrne, Romana New York: Bloomsbury. Caplan, Jane The Cambridge Women's Studies Group ed. Women in Society: Interdisciplinary Essays. London: Virago. Davidson, Arnold Gutting, Gary ed.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Dews, Peter London: Verso. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Foucault, Michel . London: Allen Lane. London: Penguin Books.
Foucault, Michel Religion and culture: Michel Foucault. Gay, Peter Greer, Germaine London: Picador. Halperin, David M. Hamer, Diana Gilbert, Harriett ed.
London: Jonathan Cape. Macey, David The Lives of Michel Foucault. London: Hutchinson. Mason, Michael The Making of Victorian Sexuality. McGee, R. Jon; Warms, Richard L. Anthropological Theory: An Introductory History. New York: McGraw Hill. Merquior, J. London: FontanaPress. View all 14 comments.
For those of you wanting just a quick hit of smut, or a sample of her work, then this is a great option. Do not read in public. ARC gratefully received from the author in exchange for an honest review. View all 4 comments. Jun 26, Melanie rated it really liked it Shelves: arc , read-in , erotic-scenes , buddy-reads , contemporary , romance , anthologies.
ARC provided to me by author Alessandra Torre in exchange for an honest review. This is a collection of the some of sexiest scenes from five of Alessandra Torre's books. Out of a possible 25 stars, these short stories accumulated 18 3. I have not read this full series, but ARC provided to me by author Alessandra Torre in exchange for an honest review.
I have not read this full series, but I didn't care for this short at all. The guy just seemed to use her, while she looked like a glorified prostitute. I have a lot of faith in Alessandra, so maybe this was just a bad glimpse at this story. I will admit the addition of Drew made me want to read the actual books so I could judge this properly. This book is probably the book that made me fall in love with Alessandra's writing. I only gave this four stars because I already knew the huge twist view spoiler [Paul and Stewart are brothers hide spoiler ] , so I didn't love their sex scene.
I mean, it was still hot, but knowing the twist Also, Ahhh I forgot how much I love Paul. The first chapter was incredibly hot.
The final chapter was maybe the sexiest thing I've ever read. This story completely hooked me, and I cannot wait to read it in it's entirety. I remember reading this and being in a complete and utter amazing daze because the story was that addicting. I relived all of that while reading this, and cannot stress this enough: If you haven't read this yet, please do so NOW. I also feel like I've read this story too many times.